For elicitation sessions designed to confirm hypotheses, the elicitation items may be known in advance. In such cases, it can be helpful to prepare a set of slides for elicitation in advance and to run a "canned" elicitation session.

  • Why canned? For blocking and randomizing stimuli (see Section 2.3 of the paper), it's necessary to prepare stimulus presentation order in advance.

  • Why slides? Slides can be beneficial relative to a list of words since they clearly separate one elicitation item from another for both the elicitor and the consultant. This can help with ordering effects, especially at the end of an elicitation session. With a list, the consultant is very aware of the impending end of the session and this awareness can induce changes in their pronunciation such as discourse/utterance-final prosody. The isolation of one elicitation from another can also help emphasize the sense of each elicitation item being in its own discourse context and help prevent list intonation.

In this tutorial, we illustrate how to go from a spreadsheet of elicitation items to slides for presentation during an elicitation session. We use Microsoft Excel and Microsoft Word, but other spreadsheet and word processing software programs can be used in a similar way.

All files referenced in the tutorial are in this directory in the tutorials/preparing-stimuli/ sub-directory.

We start with our spreadsheet for 20111215-kiy-2-framedwordlist. To get from this spreadsheet to preparing stimuli for presentation in an elicitation session, we need to:

Set and document an order for eliciting the stimulus set

You can follow along with the tutorial by starting with the file 20111215-2-kiy-ap-framedwordlist.xlsx in the tutorials/preparing-elicitation-items/ directory.

The simplest kind of randomization of stimulus order you can do is a pure randomization without any constraints, e.g. "no items of both Tone 2 one after another". Here's a quick way to do this in spreadsheets:

  1. In a new column, type a column header label "rand". We'll fill this column with randomly generated numbers.

  2. In the first cell in the column, enter the RAND() command to fill the cell with a randomly generated number between 0 and 1:

  3. Then double-click the right-bottom corner of this cell to have the RAND() command be filled down the column. Now you've got a random number in each row of the hash table!

    Use RAND() to generate a column of random
numbers for sorting stimulus order.
    Use RAND() to generate a column of random numbers for sorting stimulus order.

  4. A problem: Excel will recalculate the column of random numbers any time you do anything with them, include sorting with them. There are two ways to fix this:

    • Method 1

    Change the calculation mode to Manually in Excel > Preferences under the preference settings for Calculation. Also make sure that Always calculate before saving workbook is not checked

    The Calculation preference pane.
    The Calculation preference pane.

    Setting calculation mode to manually.
    Setting calculation mode to manually.

    • Method 2

    Copy the column of random numbers and use Edit > Paste Special to paste just the Values. Use this column to do the sorting in the next step.

  5. Now we'll sort the hash table by these random numbers. Double-click on the icon with a triangle on the right corner of the rand column header cell to pop up a dialogue box for sorting. (If you don't see such an icon, then make sure that Data > Filter is checked:

    Make sure that Filter is
checked so that the filter icons show up in the table header
cells.
    Make sure that Filter is checked so that the filter icons show up in the table header cells.

  6. Click on Ascending (or Descending, it doesn't matter) and then close the dialogue box. Now your items are sorted by the random numbers from least to greatest, i.e., your item order has been randomized! Note that if we sort in ascending order by the item column, we'll get our original spreadsheet order back. So it's really important that we have the elicitation item key (ID/barcode), as discussed in Organizing elicitation items, so we always can keep tabs on an elicitation item, even if we randomize the elicitation item order.

    Items in hash table sorted by
the random numbers in Column M in ascending order
    Items in spreadsheet sorted by the random numbers in Column M in ascending order

  7. Make sure you save your stimuli in randomized order, e.g. as a new file 20111215-2-kiy-ap-framedwordlist-rand.xlsx. Note that your final spreadsheet may look different from the file 20111215-2-kiy-ap-framedwordlist-rand.xlsx in the tutorials/preparing-elicitation-items/ directory since your randomized order will be different.


Format the stimuli for visual presentation

Now you can copy your stimuli from Excel into Word to generate a slideshow for your elicitation session! Since the spreadsheet 20111215-2-kiy-ap-framedwordlist-rand.xlsx preserves the association of each stimulus item to its properties, e.g. word.1, word.2, verb, etc., we don't need to worry about keeping track about these properties in creating the slideshow---all we need to copy over is, minimally, the English free translations in the sent.eng column, since we need a prompt to elicit each item during the elicitation session.

We might also want to copy over the Kirikiri sentences in sent.kiy and the targeted tonal patterns in bitone so we have an idea of what we're expecting the consultant to utter for each elicitation item, to help check as we go along in the elicitation session that we're actually eliciting what we intend to elicit.

Here's how to turn your Excel data into slides to present in elicitation in Word, in two steps:

  1. Copy the stimuli from the Excel spreadsheet into Word
  2. Re-formatting the Word document to create slides

Copy the stimuli from the Excel spreadsheet into Word

  1. Select the columns you want in your slides and copy them to the system clipboard by clicking on Copy in the Edit menu:

    Select the
columns you want  to appear in your slides for presentation and
copy.
    Select the columns you want to appear in your slides for presentation and copy.

  2. Open Microsoft Word and select Paste Special... in the Edit menu.

    Paste the copied Excel
data as unformatted text
    Paste the copied Excel data as unformatted text

  3. Now you should have a bunch of text in your Word document, with one item per line, in your randomized order from 20111215-2-kiy-ap-framedwordlist-rand.xlsx. Note that the original column breaks in Excel are preserved here with tab-delimited formatting: in each row, tab characters separate the original Excel columns. Also, each line ends in a newline (paragraph symbol) which indicates a line break. If you don't see any of these special characters, make sure that you have set the option Show all non-printing characters.

Pasted text from Excel. Pay special attention to the special characters separating columns (tabs) and lines (newline/paragraph symbol).
Pasted text from Excel. Pay special attention to the special characters separating columns (tabs) and lines (newline/paragraph symbol).

Click on the paragraph
symbol icon to show the special characters.
Click on the paragraph symbol icon to show the special characters.

Re-formatting the Word document to create slides

Now we're all set to start re-formatting the Word document, 20111215-2-kiy-ap-framedwordlist-slides0.docx (in the tutorials/preparing-elicitation-items/ directory. ) to create slides. We'll be making PDF slides that look like the figure below:

Slides for elicitor.
Slides for the elicitor, including the bitone, Kirikiri sentence, and English translation.

The slides are for the elicitor and/or translator and thus include information beyond the Kirikiri sentence or the English translation.

The screencast below illustrates the steps for creating the slides 20111215-2-kiy-ap-framedwordlist-slides.pdf and 20111215-2-kiy-ap-framedwordlist-slides.docx from 20111215-2-kiy-ap-framedwordlist-slides0.docx. All files are in the tutorials/preparing-elicitation-items/ directory. The steps are also outlined below in the tutorial body.

Screencast:creating slides for presentation of elicitation items to consultant.

  1. We'll use the special characters to help us format the slides using the Find and Replace command. Make sure the cursor is set at the beginning of the document. Now click on Edit > Find > Replace:

    Select Edit > Find >Replace.
    Select Edit > Find > Replace.

  2. Use Find > Replace to make the following replacements, in the stated order (order matters!):

    1. Replace carriage return/paragraph mark ^p with pagebreak ^m followed by a few carriage return/paragraph marks ^p^p, i.e., with ^m^p^p. (The carriage return/paragraph mark ^p behaves effectively like a newline/line break character.)
    2. Replace tab ^t with carriage return/paragraph mark ^p

    This replaces: (1) the carriage returns with page breaks, plus a few extra carriage returns to help vertically center the text on the slide, and (2) the tabs with carriage returns, so that each different field (bitone, sent.kiy, sent.eng) ends up on a different line. So now each elicitation item gets its own slide.

  3. Increase the font size of the text in the document. Go to Edit > Select all and then change the font size to something that easily readable but also not so gigantic that it's hard to fit much text into a line. Something like 24 or 36 might work well.

  4. Change the orientation of the document from portrait to landscape. Go to Format > Document > Page Setup and click on the landscape orientation icon. Now your slides will be in landscape mode.

  5. Finally, make sure you save your Word document. You might also save the slides in a PDF file.

  6. If you want your consultant to be looking at your slides for elicitation, you might just want each slide to show the sentence/word written in the language to be elicited or the sentence/word in the contact language. In this case, you would copy only the relevant column, e.g. sent.kiy, over from the spreadsheet to Word and repeat the steps 1-5 above.


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