For elicitation sessions designed to confirm hypotheses, the elicitation items may be known in advance. In such cases, it can be helpful to prepare a set of slides for elicitation in advance and to run a "canned" elicitation session.
Why canned? For blocking and randomizing stimuli (see Section 2.3 of the paper), it's necessary to prepare stimulus presentation order in advance.
Why slides? Slides can be beneficial relative to a list of words since they clearly separate one elicitation item from another for both the elicitor and the consultant. This can help with ordering effects, especially at the end of an elicitation session. With a list, the consultant is very aware of the impending end of the session and this awareness can induce changes in their pronunciation such as discourse/utterance-final prosody. The isolation of one elicitation from another can also help emphasize the sense of each elicitation item being in its own discourse context and help prevent list intonation.
In this tutorial, we illustrate how to go from a spreadsheet of elicitation items to slides for presentation during an elicitation session. We use Microsoft Excel and Microsoft Word, but other spreadsheet and word processing software programs can be used in a similar way.
We start with our spreadsheet for
To get from this spreadsheet to preparing stimuli for presentation in
an elicitation session, we need to:
You can follow along with the tutorial by starting with the file
20111215-2-kiy-ap-framedwordlist.xlsx in the
The simplest kind of randomization of stimulus order you can do is a pure randomization without any constraints, e.g. "no items of both Tone 2 one after another". Here's a quick way to do this in spreadsheets:
In a new column, type a column header label "rand". We'll fill this column with randomly generated numbers.
In the first cell in the column, enter the
RAND()command to fill the cell with a randomly generated number between 0 and 1:
Then double-click the right-bottom corner of this cell to have the
RAND()command be filled down the column. Now you've got a random number in each row of the hash table!
A problem: Excel will recalculate the column of random numbers any time you do anything with them, include sorting with them. There are two ways to fix this:
Change the calculation mode to
Excel > Preferencesunder the preference settings for
Calculation. Also make sure that
Always calculate before saving workbookis not checked
Copy the column of random numbers and use
Edit > Paste Specialto paste just the
Values. Use this column to do the sorting in the next step.
Now we'll sort the hash table by these random numbers. Double-click on the icon with a triangle on the right corner of the rand column header cell to pop up a dialogue box for sorting. (If you don't see such an icon, then make sure that
Data > Filteris checked:
Descending, it doesn't matter) and then close the dialogue box. Now your items are sorted by the random numbers from least to greatest, i.e., your item order has been randomized! Note that if we sort in ascending order by the item column, we'll get our original spreadsheet order back. So it's really important that we have the elicitation item key (ID/barcode), as discussed in Organizing elicitation items, so we always can keep tabs on an elicitation item, even if we randomize the elicitation item order.
Make sure you save your stimuli in randomized order, e.g. as a new file
20111215-2-kiy-ap-framedwordlist-rand.xlsx. Note that your final spreadsheet may look different from the file
tutorials/preparing-elicitation-items/directory since your randomized order will be different.
Now you can copy your stimuli from Excel into Word to generate a slideshow for your elicitation session! Since the spreadsheet
20111215-2-kiy-ap-framedwordlist-rand.xlsx preserves the association of each stimulus item to its properties, e.g.
verb, etc., we don't need to worry about keeping track about these properties in creating the slideshow---all we need to copy over is, minimally, the English free translations in the
sent.eng column, since we need a prompt to elicit each item during the elicitation session.
We might also want to copy over the Kirikiri sentences in
sent.kiy and the targeted tonal patterns in
bitone so we have an idea of what we're expecting the consultant to utter for each elicitation item, to help check as we go along in the elicitation session that we're actually eliciting what we intend to elicit.
Here's how to turn your Excel data into slides to present in elicitation in Word, in two steps:
- Copy the stimuli from the Excel spreadsheet into Word
- Re-formatting the Word document to create slides
Select the columns you want in your slides and copy them to the system clipboard by clicking on
Open Microsoft Word and select
Paste Special...in the
Now you should have a bunch of text in your Word document, with one item per line, in your randomized order from
20111215-2-kiy-ap-framedwordlist-rand.xlsx. Note that the original column breaks in Excel are preserved here with tab-delimited formatting: in each row, tab characters separate the original Excel columns. Also, each line ends in a newline (paragraph symbol) which indicates a line break. If you don't see any of these special characters, make sure that you have set the option
Show all non-printing characters.
Now we're all set to start re-formatting the Word document,
20111215-2-kiy-ap-framedwordlist-slides0.docx (in the
) to create slides. We'll be making PDF slides that look like the figure below:
The slides are for the elicitor and/or translator and thus include information beyond the Kirikiri sentence or the English translation.
The screencast below illustrates the steps for creating the slides
20111215-2-kiy-ap-framedwordlist-slides0.docx. All files are in the
steps are also outlined below in the tutorial body.
Screencast:creating slides for presentation of elicitation items to consultant.
We'll use the special characters to help us format the slides using the
Find and Replacecommand. Make sure the cursor is set at the beginning of the document. Now click on
Edit > Find > Replace:
Find > Replaceto make the following replacements, in the stated order (order matters!):
- Replace carriage return/paragraph mark
^mfollowed by a few carriage return/paragraph marks
^p^p, i.e., with
^m^p^p. (The carriage return/paragraph mark
^pbehaves effectively like a newline/line break character.)
- Replace tab
^twith carriage return/paragraph mark
This replaces: (1) the carriage returns with page breaks, plus a few extra carriage returns to help vertically center the text on the slide, and (2) the tabs with carriage returns, so that each different field (bitone, sent.kiy, sent.eng) ends up on a different line. So now each elicitation item gets its own slide.
- Replace carriage return/paragraph mark
Increase the font size of the text in the document. Go to
Edit > Select alland then change the font size to something that easily readable but also not so gigantic that it's hard to fit much text into a line. Something like 24 or 36 might work well.
Change the orientation of the document from portrait to landscape. Go to
Format > Document > Page Setupand click on the landscape orientation icon. Now your slides will be in landscape mode.
Finally, make sure you save your Word document. You might also save the slides in a PDF file.
If you want your consultant to be looking at your slides for elicitation, you might just want each slide to show the sentence/word written in the language to be elicited or the sentence/word in the contact language. In this case, you would copy only the relevant column, e.g. sent.kiy, over from the spreadsheet to Word and repeat the steps 1-5 above.